CESAREAN OPERATION IN CATS-DOGS
The Purpose of the Operation:
Cesarean operation is the procedure of removal of the fetus or fetuses that cannot be delivered by hand vaginally or by medical treatment methods, by uterus incision and by entering in the abdominal cavity of the mother by surgically.
Cesarean operation in dogs was applied in 1839 for the first time. Thanks to surgical techniques, anesthesia methods and antibiotics developing in time after this application, cesarean operation has become a safely applied method today for saving lives of the mother and her puppies/kittens in difficult deliveries. Studies have reported that dog breeds that mostly require the cesarean operation are Bulldog, Boxer, Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, Corgi, Chihuahua, Mastiff and Yorkshire Terrier breed dogs and this operation is applied more in small breed dogs than large breeds. Among cats, cesarean operation is frequently applied in Exotic Shorthair cats.
Additionally, the frequency of the cesarean operation is higher in the pets giving birth for the first time. Therefore, it is known that the age of the pet has a significant effect on cesarean operation.
Timing of the cesarean operation is important in order to prevent the risk the lives of the mother and her puppies/kittens. The long duration of difficult deliveries, the lack of help, or the delay of help in delivery can lead to the impairment of general status of the mother. Depending on this, life threatening situations can occur in the mother and her puppies/kittens. When difficult deliveries are not intervened in time, it becomes mostly impossible to save puppies/kittens. Saving the mother at birth can be regarded as a success.
There are various reasons requiring cesarean operations in pets. Proportion disorders, pelvic fractures, bigger puppies/kittens, fetal anomalies, improper birth positions, inadequate birth pains, uterus twisting, death of the puppies/kittens in uterus, cervical canal stenosis, vaginal wounds, narrowness of the vulva, etc., that prevent normal birth between normal fetus and pelvis measurements can be specified as such reasons.
Points to Take into Account Before the Operation:
Cesarean operation is applied frequently in order to perform the birth in pets anticipated to have difficult birth.
The operation should be planned for the patients for whom cesarean decision is given via the clinical examination and ultrasound, without loss of time. However, first of all, the general situation should be controlled and if there is a problem, it should be tried to be eliminated. If there is a life-threatening situation in the patient, the puppies/kittens have died, the general condition has started to be impaired, and the septicemia picture appears; the general condition should be promptly supported and the operation has to be performed urgently.
If the patient has not been taken to operation urgently and an appropriate day is given for the operation, the treatment requested to be administered should be followed up regularly.
The patient should not be fed within 12-24 hours before the operation. This will allow the patient, to be anesthetized, to have a more comfortable operation.
Technique of the Operation:
Sterilization processes of the patient to whom sedatives are administered for the operation are performed in the preparation room. For this purpose, the hairs in the preferred operation area are shaved. Then, disinfection of the area is locally provided with an antiseptic solution. After these procedures, type of anesthesia preferred by the veterinary physician is applied to the patient who is taken to the operation room. The area is then limited with a sterile cloth and made ready for the surgical intervention.
The most suitable area for operation is the midline of the abdomen called as the linea alba. However, some veterinary physicians may prefer to perform the cesarean operation from the left-right fasting cavities. However, the possibility of bleeding is very low because the midline of the abdomen is weak in terms of veining. From here, it will be easier to reach the uterus. It is important to perform the cesarean section in a quick and rapid manner. The greater the amount of narcosis to be given until the removal of the puppies/kittens is, the greater the risk of fetal asphyxia and the risk of depressing circulation in the patient is.
A veinless section is selected at the level of the uterus and a large incision is made so that the operation can be performed. Together with the puppies/kittens in the uterus, they are removed from the incision line. The aim is to prevent their waters from flowing into the abdominal cavity and also the risk of infection. The uterus wall is incised from a suitable point and the offsprings and the offspring sac are reached. If there is multiple pregnancy, all the offsprings are taken by applying massage from the same incision line. After the cesarean operations; Ovariohysterectomy (spaying by removing both the ovaries and the uterus) operation can be done upon the request of the pet owner or in order to prevent the risk of complication. If only the cesarean operation is to be done, the offspring’s membranes are taken out. The uterine wall is closed by using the appropriate suturing technique. After the bleeding is controlled and the fluids that have escaped to the abdominal cavity are cleaned; the peritoneum, muscles and skin are sutured and the operation area is closed. The newborns should be placed in an incubator until the mother wakes up. If there is no incubator, they should be kept in a soft, warm, dim-lit and sterile environment as far as possible.
Points to Take into Account After the Operation:
The antibiotic administration after surgery should be of the duration and dose recommended by the veterinary physician. In this context, antibiotics with no or little penetration into the milk or should be preferred. After the operation, WinPet Wound Protecting Corset should be absolutely used as the patient may damage the operation area by licking and biting. In cesarean patients using WinPet, the product should wrap the mother tighter than normal. Thus, this will prevent the mother from herniation on the cesarean scar line. In addition, nipple spaces should be opened on the WinPet to feed the offsprings. Mothers and puppies/kittens should be followed up in their natural environment for a while and it should be ensured that the puppies/kittens are fed. Pain killers can be used when needed. However, it should be kept in mind that they may leave residues in the milk and thus, may damage the puppies/kittens. During the recovery period, the wound should be dressed with a suitable antiseptic-antibiotic solution and the wound should be kept dry. Sometimes, it is necessary to put a buffer between the WinPet and the operation area in the patients who are hyperactive and have high risk of herniation.
Complete recovery can be completed within approximately 10-12 days and sutures can be removed.
If there is a condition such as swelling, redness, inflammation etc. occurs due to a possible edema in the region in this period, the veterinary physician should be consulted as soon as possible.
Possible Complications After the Operation:
Complications that may develop are scarcely any provided that necessary sterilization and the use of suitable materials during the operation and regular administration of antibiotics and fluid therapy after the operation are taken into consideration.
In addition, excessive and inappropriate exercises should be avoided and sutures should be protected after the operation. WinPet Wound Protecting Corset should not be removed from the patient during the recovery period. Otherwise, eventration can occur (opening of the sutures and protrusion of viscera)
It should be kept in mind that the success of cesarean operation is directly associated with correct timing, appropriate anesthesia and operation technique, postoperative intensive care and postoperative comfort.